汽车常见故障及维修知识 车辆小毛病自己动手也能修 汽车由成千上万个部件组成，也不知道哪哪一个配件会出现问题造成汽车故障。在日常用车生活中车主积累一些汽车维修知识，爱车出现小毛病，自己能轻松搞定，遇到大问题时，也只原因，不至于被维修人员坑蒙宰骗。
Car common faults and maintenance knowledge car small problems can be repaired by yourself. The car is composed of thousands of parts. I don't know which part will have problems one day, causing car faults. In daily car use life, car owners accumulate some car maintenance knowledge. They can easily solve small problems in their car. When they encounter big problems, they can only explain the reason, so as not to be cheated by maintenance personnel.
1.排气管冒黑烟 故障判定：真故障。 原因分析：表明混合气过浓，燃烧不完全。主要原因是汽车发动机超负荷，气缸压力不足，发动机温度过低，化油器调整不当，空气滤芯堵塞，个别气缸不工作及点火过迟等。 解决：排除时，应及时检查阻风门是否完全打开，必要时进行检修；熄火后从化油器口看主喷管，若有油注出或滴油，则浮子室油面过高，应调整到规定范围，拧紧或更换主量孔；空气滤清器堵塞，应清洗或更换。
1. Black smoke fault judgment of exhaust pipe: true fault. Cause analysis: it shows that the mixture is too rich and the combustion is incomplete. The main reasons are overload of automobile engine, insufficient cylinder pressure, too low engine temperature, improper adjustment of carburetor, blockage of air filter element, non operation of individual cylinders and too late ignition. Solution: when troubleshooting, timely check whether the choke is fully opened and repair it if necessary; After flameout, look at the main nozzle from the carburetor port. If oil is injected or dripping, the oil level of the float chamber is too high. Adjust it to the specified range, tighten or replace the main measuring hole; The air filter is blocked and should be cleaned or replaced.
2.车辆的排气管排出蓝色的烟雾 故障判定：真故障。 原因分析：是由于大量机油进入气缸，而又不能完全燃烧所致。拆下火花塞，即可发现严重的积炭现象。 解决：需检查机油尺油面是否过高；气缸与活塞间隙是否过大；活塞环是否装反；进气门导管是否磨损或密封圈是否损坏；气缸垫是否烧蚀等，必要时应予以维修。
2. The exhaust pipe of the vehicle emits blue smoke. Fault judgment: true fault. Cause analysis: it is caused by a large amount of engine oil entering the cylinder and unable to burn completely. Remove the spark plug to find serious carbon deposition. Solution: check whether the oil level of the oil dipstick is too high; Whether the clearance between cylinder and piston is too large; Whether the piston ring is installed reversely; Whether the intake valve guide is worn or the sealing ring is damaged; Whether the cylinder gasket is ablated, etc., and repair it if necessary.
3.车辆排气管冒白烟，冷车时严重，热车后就不冒白烟了 故障判定：假故障。 原因分析：这是因为汽油中含有水分，而发动机过冷，此时进入气缸的燃油未完全燃烧导致雾点或水蒸气产生形成白烟。冬季或雨季当汽车初次发动时，常常可以看到排白烟。 解决：这不要紧，一旦发动机温度升高，白烟就会消失。此状况不必检修。
3. The exhaust pipe of the vehicle emits white smoke, which is serious when the vehicle is cold and does not emit white smoke after the vehicle is hot. Fault judgment: false fault. Cause analysis: This is because the gasoline contains water and the engine is too cold. At this time, the fuel entering the cylinder is not completely burned, resulting in fog points or water vapor to form white smoke. In winter or rainy season, white smoke can often be seen when the car is started for the first time. Solution: it doesn't matter. Once the engine temperature rises, the white smoke will disappear. This condition does not require maintenance.
4.发动机噪声大，车辆原地踩加速踏板时，有“隆.隆”异响，发动机舱内有振动感。 故障判定：使用类故障。 原因分析：举升车辆，可看到发动机的底护板有磕碰痕迹。如果路面有障碍物而强行通过，发动机底护板就要被磕碰。底护 板变形后与发动机油底壳距离变近，如果距离太近，当加速时油底壳与底护板相撞就会发出异响并使车身振动。 解决：行车中一定要仔细观察路面，不要造成拖底现象发生。处理方法：拆下底护板，压平校正即可。
4. The engine is noisy. When the vehicle steps on the accelerator pedal in place, there is a "boom. Boom" noise and vibration in the engine compartment. Fault determination: use type fault. Cause analysis: when lifting the vehicle, it can be seen that there are collision marks on the bottom guard of the engine. If there are obstacles on the road and force through, the engine bottom guard will be knocked. After the deformation of the bottom guard, the distance between the bottom guard and the engine oil pan becomes closer. If the distance is too close, when the oil pan collides with the bottom guard during acceleration, it will make abnormal noise and make the vehicle body vibrate. Solution: carefully observe the road surface during driving to avoid dragging the bottom. Treatment method: remove the bottom guard plate, flatten and correct it.
5.车辆的转向盘总是不正，一会向左，一会向右，飘忽不定 故障判定：真故障。 原因分析：这是由于固定在转向机凹槽中的橡胶限位块已完全损坏导致。 解决：将新限位块装复后，故障完全消失。
5. The steering wheel of the vehicle is always out of alignment, one to the left and one to the right, erratic. Fault judgment: true fault. Cause analysis: This is because the rubber stop block fixed in the steering gear groove has been completely damaged. Solution: after the new limit block is reinstalled, the fault disappears completely.
6.每次开启空调时，其出风口有非常难闻的气味，天气潮湿时更加严重 故障判定：维护类故障。 原因分析：空调的制冷原理是通过制冷剂迅速蒸发吸热，使流经的空气温度迅速下降。由于蒸发器的温度低，而空气温度高，空气中的水分子颗粒会在蒸发器上凝结成水珠，而空气中的灰尘或衣服.座椅上的小绒毛等物质，容易附着在冷凝器的表面，从而导致发霉。 解决：这样的空气被人体长期吸入会影响驾驶员及乘车人的身体健康，所以空调系统要定期更换空调滤芯，清洁空气道。
6. When the air conditioner is turned on every time, its air outlet has a very unpleasant smell, which is more serious in wet weather. Fault judgment: maintenance fault. Cause analysis: the refrigeration principle of air conditioner is to absorb heat through rapid evaporation of refrigerant, so that the temperature of air flowing through decreases rapidly. Due to the low temperature of the evaporator and the high temperature of the air, the water molecular particles in the air will condense into water droplets on the evaporator, while the dust or clothes in the air Small fluff and other substances on the seat are easy to adhere to the surface of the condenser, resulting in mildew. Solution: if such air is inhaled by the human body for a long time, it will affect the health of drivers and passengers. Therefore, the air conditioning system should regularly replace the air conditioning filter element and clean the air duct.
7.下小雨时风窗玻璃刮不干净： 故障判定：维护类故障。 原因分析：不雨下得很大时使用刮水器感觉不错，可是当下小雨启动刮水器时，就会发现刮水器会在玻璃面上留下擦拭不均的痕迹；这种情况表明刮水器片已硬化，或者刮水器片有了伤痕便会造成擦拭上的不均匀，形成残留污垢。 解决：更换刮水器或刮水器胶片面。但在更换时应注意，在车型及年份不同，刮水器的安装方法及长度不同。有的刮水器只需要更换橡胶片，而有的刮水器需整体更换。
7. The windshield is not cleaned during light rain: fault judgment: maintenance fault. Cause analysis: it feels good to use the wiper when it doesn't rain heavily, but when you start the wiper in a light rain, you will find that the wiper will leave uneven traces on the glass surface; This indicates that the wiper blade has hardened, or the wiper blade has scars, which will cause uneven wiping and form residual dirt. Solution: replace the wiper or wiper rubber side. However, during replacement, it should be noted that the installation method and length of wipers are different in different models and years. Some wipers only need to replace the rubber sheet, while others need to be replaced as a whole.
8.车辆有噪声 故障判定：假故障。 原因分析：车都会存在不同程度的噪声问题。车内噪声主要来自发动机噪声.风噪.车身共振.悬架噪声及胎声等五个方面。
8. Vehicle noise fault judgment: false fault. Cause analysis: there will be different degrees of noise problems in cars. The interior noise mainly comes from engine noise Wind noise Body resonance Suspension noise and tire sound.
9.运行中发动机温度突然过高 故障判定：真故障。 原因分析：如果汽车在运行过程中，冷却液温度表指示很快到达100℃的位置，或在冷车发动时，发动机冷却液温度迅速升高至沸腾，在补足冷却液后转为正常，但发动机功率明显下降，说明发动机机械系统出现故障。导致这类故障的原因大多是：冷却系严重漏水；隔绝水套与气缸的气缸垫被冲坏；节温器主阀门脱落；风扇传动带松脱或断裂；水泵轴与叶轮松脱；风扇离合器工作不良。 解决：检查出故障的原因，对应维修更换即可。
9. Fault judgment of sudden high engine temperature during operation: true fault. Cause analysis: if the indication of the coolant temperature gauge reaches 100 ℃ soon during the operation of the vehicle, or the engine coolant temperature rises rapidly to boiling when the vehicle is cold, and turns to normal after replenishing the coolant, but the engine power decreases significantly, it indicates that the mechanical system of the engine has failed. Most of the causes of such failures are: serious water leakage in the cooling system; The cylinder pad separating the water jacket from the cylinder is damaged; The main valve of thermostat falls off; Loose or broken fan drive belt; Loose water pump shaft and impeller; The fan clutch is not working properly. Solution: check the cause of the fault and replace it accordingly.